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教育頭條 > 初中語文 > 初中語文文言文怎么背?7大方法助你默寫滿分

初中語文文言文怎么背?7大方法助你默寫滿分

初中語文 12-19 瀏覽量: 分享:
初中,大部分的古文詩詞都要背誦,但是相當一部分同學在得知要閱讀并背誦全文的時候還是覺得頭疼。而且尤其是對于文言文,死記硬背是完全不可取的,下面三好網資深語文老師給大家推薦7種適合文言文背誦的方法,希望可以幫到大家!
 

利用文中關鍵字詞背誦
一篇文章或者一段文字都有關鍵字詞,一般情況下,關鍵的字詞有兩種:

段首字詞
你可以回想一下自己是否有過這樣的情況,在背誦自以為已經熟練記憶的文言文時,往往在某一段的開頭卡殼,怎么回憶也沒頭緒,但是只要一經別人提示一下卡殼這段的開頭字詞,就能輕松背下去。

這個時候,我們就可以著重掌握段首字詞,幫助自己記憶。

支撐文章內容的關鍵動詞
比如孟子的《生于憂患,死于安樂》,在背誦這篇文言文時可以著重記憶描寫“擔當重任”的人要遭受的苦難的字:
“苦”、“勞”、“餓”、“空乏”、“拂亂”等詞語。

根據這個思路,把關鍵字詞串聯起來就很好背誦了。


結合句子特點背誦
比如在背誦《得道多助,失道寡助》中的“城非不高也,池非不深也,兵革非不堅利也,米粟非不多也”的時候,記住這個結構特點“××非不××”,背誦下面的“域民不以封疆為界……戰必勝矣”,然后理清這幾句先排比、再駢句、后散句的句式特點來背誦。

對于某些具有“重章疊唱”特點的課文,在背誦時可以求同存異:在背誦第一節后,找出其余各節與第一節不同的字句并記熟它們就可以了。


省略部分文字背誦
具體做法:熟讀課文,做到能夠通順地讀出來并理解文章的意思,然后把它抄寫在本子上,不過不要每一句都抄完,只需要保留每句話的開頭和結尾的一兩個字,自己背誦時再補齊省略的文字。


課文畫面聯想背誦
幾乎每篇課文都會有插圖,插圖一般都是和文章是相關的, 我們需要做的就是注意并記住這些插畫,當我們背誦這篇課文的時候,插圖就在頭腦中自然而然地出現,從而產生聯想記憶。

例如《醉翁亭記》一文的二、三兩段中分別描繪了兩幅畫面,一幅朝暮四季圖;一幅“滁人游——太守宴——眾賓歡——太守醉”圖。
如果能把這些山水風光、游人活動、個人情感等畫面熟記于心,背誦就信手拈來了。

這種方法不僅有利于對詩文意思的理解,也有助于記憶。


按照寫作順序背誦
文章的寫作順序主要有時間順序、空間順序、邏輯順序等,我們在背誦這一類能夠找到順序規律的文章就可以用這種方法。

例如《扁鵲見蔡桓公》就可以按時間順序:扁鵲見蔡桓公→居十日,扁鵲復見→居十日,扁鵲望桓侯而還走→居五日→桓侯遂死。
《核舟記》則可以按空間順序背誦:整船→船中→船頭→船尾→船背。


按照課文翻譯背誦
在文言文中,一些句子或段落繞口難讀,更難記,這是很正常的,此時,就可以把文章翻譯過來,先把譯文記住,再根據譯文背誦課文。

例如《愚公移山》中的:“雖我之死,有子存焉;子又生孫,孫又生子,子又有子,子又有孫,子子孫孫無窮盡也”,如果沒有翻譯死記硬背,就容易記、漏記、顛倒。


根據課文線索背誦
文言文的寫作線索一般有:寫人線索、敘事線索、抒情線索等,摸清文章的線索來背誦也是及其有效的。

例如《桃花源記》以漁人的行蹤為線索:逢桃林——入桃花源——桃花源人生活——出桃花源——找桃花源——尋找未果?!堵毅憽穭t可按題眼“陋”這一線索來記憶,文章先寫居室環境和日常生活的“陋”,再用作者的陋室與古代名室相比,寫得層次分明。

聲明:本文來源于網絡,如有侵權,請及時聯系我們刪除。













 

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